Sammy Account - Demo Pet Profile

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You're about to discover the story of your dog's ancestry and genetic health

Thank you for choosing Orivet Genetic Pet Care to uncover the story of Sammy's genetic ancestry and special health needs.

Knowing Sammy's unique genetic makeup is more than a novelty - it is a medical necessity. Sammy's breed, like family history, is associated with unique health concerns much the same as age, weight sex and lifestyle.

Knowing Sammy's unique genetic makeup is more than a novelty - it is a medical necessity. Sammy's breed, like family history, is associated with unique health concerns much the same as age, weight, sex and lifestyle.

We believe that combining this knowledge enables you to provide a lifetime of excellent care leading to a longer, healthier and happier life for your friend.

In this report, you will find detailed information specific to Sammy's health. It is important to carefully review this report in conjunction with more details present in Sammy's ONLINE ACCOUNT where you can edit, update and directly share Sammy's information with your family and friends.

To gain the most value out of Sammy's report, we encourage you to share and discuss this report with Sammy's veterinarian. They can help you use your report to customize Sammy's health care and even build a personalized wellness plan to manage Sammy's health throughout Sammy's life.

We hope you will find the information in this report beneficial and wish you a long and happy life with your pet.

Sammy's Account

Profile

Age
2 yr
Weight
78 lbs
Sex
Female
Pedigree
Mixed Breed

Color
Tricolor
Birthdate
31 Dec 2016
ID
Microchip GS99299290201

Source
None
Insurance

People and Pets Living with me
None

Breed Details

Boxer

General breed description

The Boxer is a well built, squarish, muscular dog with a somewhat short, blocky head that is perfectly proportioned to the body.  The muzzle is somewhat blocky and short, and should be in proportion to the skull, with a mild underbite.  Originally Boxers had docked tails and cropped ears - note that unnecessary cosmetic surgery such as these are now banned in Australia, as well as many other parts of the world.  The ears are set relatively high, fall forward and sit close to the side of the head.  The tail extends from the line of the back and curves gently upwards, and is usually carried slightly low.  The coat is short and shiny, and comes in two basic colours; fawn/red and brindled.  White markings are also possible, and when these are excessive the Boxer is termed “white”.  Boxers do not have the genes do be solid black, but can have a black mask, and black mixed with tan (i.e. brindle).

 

The Boxer is a large breed, with females standing 53 - 60 cm tall and weighing 25 - 27 kg, and males standing 57 - 63 cm tall and weighing 30 - 32 kg.

History

The Boxer originated in Germany in the late 19th century, and is thought to descend from the Bullenbeisser (\"bull biter\") breed, a mastiff type dog, and Old English Bulldogs brought in from Britain, both now extinct breeds. Bull biting, or bull baiting (using dogs to attack live bulls at market) used to be a common practice, as it was believed that it tenderised meat. Early Boxers were also used for hunting and fighting, and tail docking and ear cropping was done to prevent opponents in the field having something to hang onto.   The Boxer has a strong jaw and powerful bite, in line with its original purpose of hanging on to large prey. Boxers were first shown in the Munich area in 1895, but became popular in other parts of the world following World War II. Most breed clubs list them as utility or working dogs, although today they are generally used as companion and show dogs. They also make good guard dogs.

Breed temperament and behaviour

The Boxer is loving and faithful to his family, and can be very playful and fun-loving. He is intelligent and energetic, and has great strength. The Boxer can have a reputation for being headstrong, and can be wary of strangers. This attribute can make him a good guard dog, but in social settings it is important that he has received good training and socialisation since puppyhood. Boxers respond much better to positive training methods and can perform extremely well in intelligence and athletic trials if trained in the correct manner. The Boxer requires companionship, and although he is usually patient with smaller dogs and puppies other pets may pose problems, especially smaller animals that he can chase, such as chickens or ducks.

Requirements and needs

The Boxer requires excellent training and good socialisation, and plenty of interactive exercise with his owner. The Boxer can become highly strung if his daily exercise needs are not met, and he is always keen to work or play. He has a low maintenance coat that requires a weekly brush to remove shed hair, and the occasional bath when he gets dirty.

Best suited for

The Boxer gets along well with children, being affectionate and good natured. He is suited to singles, couples, families and older people, and while a good sized and well fenced yard would be best, he will do well with less room so long as his exercise needs are met. Because he does best with company, he is well suited to any household where he can live indoors with his \"pack\".

Breed Details

Border Collie

General breed description

The Border collie can vary in appearance more than most breeds, as it is bred to be a working dog.  It is a medium sized dog with a moderate amount of double coat that may be slick, or slightly longer and lush.  The Border collie can come in many colours, although black and white is the most common.  Other colours can include black or red tri-colour, sable and white, red (chocolate) and white, as well as the less commonly seen red or blue merles, brindle, lilac, and Australian red/gold.  Single colour coats may also be seen (e.g. black).  Eye colour may be deep brown to blue, and occasionally eyes of different colour are seen (often in Merles).  Ears are also variable, and may be fully erect, partially erect or fully dropped. 

 

Most working Border collie associations consider appearance to be unimportant to the breed, and identify a working Border collie by its attitude and ability.  Border collies are renowned sheep dogs, and it is this ability that they are assessed on.  In contrast over the last few decades, breed clubs have begun to show Border collies based on appearance alone, and these conformation show dogs are required to conform much more closely to specific breed club standards.  Certainly some friction does exist between the two different types of organisations in some parts of the world.

History

The Border collie is thought to have originated in the border region between Scotland and England, and the word collie seems to originate from lowland Scots dialects. It is descended from landrace collies of the region, which were numerous, and was selected to be able to work the harsh countryside and climate, and to be able to effectively herd flocks of sheep in a manner that would not disturb or distress them. “Old Hemp” was a tricolour dog born in 1893, and was famous as having a favourable working style that sheep responded well to, and was widely used as a stud dog. His style became the Border collie style, and today all pure Border collies can trace an ancestral line back to Old Hemp.

Breed temperament and behaviour

Border collies are considered one of the most intelligent dog breeds, and to this day retain a primary role as a working stock dog. They are becoming popular pets as well, and true to their working ancestry they make demanding, energetic pets that require a lot of exercise and mental stimulation. They tend to retain their strong herding instincts, and as such are not suitable for families with small children, cats or other small dogs. They need to do a job, and can be destructive and neurotic if they become bored.

Requirements and needs

Above all the Border collie needs an abundance of exercise, both physical and mental. Generally activities such as agility, sheepdog trials, tracking, flyball and obedience are well suited to meet the needs of the Border collie. A secure yard is required, as the breed can be prone to chase moving objects, including cars. Due to their double coat they require a good brush a couple of times a week up to daily during seasonal shedding times.

Best suited for

Young active singles or couples, or families with older children and plenty of time for training and exercise activities. Obviously do well as working dogs, and on larger blocks or rural properties with room to move.                

Breed Details

Bernese Mountain Dog

General breed description

The Bernese mountain dog is a large breed with a striking tri-coloured appearance.  He is strong and sturdily built.  The body is slightly longer than it is tall.  The skull is broad and flat on top, with a well defined stop and a strong muzzle.  The expression is intelligent and gentle, with dark, slightly oval eyes  and high-set, medium sized triangular ears that hang close to the head. 

 

The legs are straight and strong, and the back is broad and firm.  The chest is deep and there is a strong loin.  The tail is bushy and is generally carried low, reaching at least to the hock.  The coat is thick, moderately long and straight or slightly wavy.  The base colour is black with markings of white and a rich rust.  There is a white blaze and muzzle band, and white on the chest that often forms an inverted cross.  The tip of the tail is white, as are the feet.  There is rust over the eyes, on the cheeks, on each side of the chest, on all legs and under the tail. 

 

The male Berner stands 64 - 70 cm tall at the withers, while the female stands 58 - 66 cm tall.  Weight is in proportion to height, and is generally 35 - 55 kg for males and 35 - 45 kg for females.

History

The Bernese mountain dog (which is affectionately known as the Bernese or Berner for short by enthusiasts of the breed) is one of four Sennerhund.  Sennerhund is German for mountain dog, and the name comes from the name for Swiss alpine farmers (the \"Senn\" or \"Senner\") and the word for dog (\"hund\").  The Berner Sennerhund, or Bernese mountain dog, was named for the canton of Berne where he was developed.  The other Sennerhund are the Appenzeller, the Entlebucher and the Greater Swiss mountain dog.  The Bernese is distinguished by his longer coat.

 

Fossilised remains of dogs from 3000BC have been found in Switzerland, and these are similar in size and build to Bernese mountain dogs.  It is thought that Romans brought mastiff-type dogs with them to the region, which may then have been bred with dogs native to the area.  This probably resulted in the ancestor of the Sennerhunds. 

 

The Bernese mountain dog was developed as a farm dog, guarding the homestead and livestock on the farms of the Durrbach region south of Berne.  These farms were smaller than what we think of in Australia or the US today, and would grow a mixture of grains as well as keep between 5-15 cows.  There may also have been a smaller number of goats or sheep.  The Bernese mountain dogs would help move the cows on the farm, and would act as a general watchdog to let the farmer know of any intruders on the farm.  He was also used as a cart dog to help take milk or cheese to factories or market.  Two dogs would pull a small milk cart for farmers who could not afford a horse and cart.

 

With the industrial revolution and the arrival of motorised vehicles the Berner almost disappered.  Enthusiasts of the breed revived his numbers early in the 20th century, and the breed was officially established in Switzerland in 1907.  The Bernese mountain dog became a sought after companion dog and show dog, and was exported to other countries including the USA, where the AKC recognised the breed in 1937. 

Breed temperament and behaviour

 

The Berner is a self-confident, good natured dog.  Given his history as a working dog, he may be somewhat aloof with strangers, but he should never be shy.  Early and ongoing socialisation is important in preventing this.

 

The Bernese mountain dog is generally good with children, and very affectionate.  He is usually patient and tolerates well children climbing over him.  He is also generally good with other pets.  The Berner is a winter dog who enjoys romping in the snow.  He does not like hot or humid weather.

 

The Berner does not reach maturity until he is 2 -3 years old, and retains puppy-like behaviour for longer than most smaller breeds.  Puppies can be rambunctious and may chase and nip.  They like to chew things and are prone to eating things they shouldn\'t, which can result in emergency surgery if you are not careful.

Requirements and needs

The Berner is a companion dog, bred to live with his farmer and his family.  He does not do well left alone in the back yard, but needs to live indoors with the family.  However he is a dog that needs exercise and loves the outdoors life.  He enjoys hiking with his owner, but remember he does not have a great deal of endurance.  He does not make a good jogging partner!  A reasonably large and well fenced yard is required for the Berner, who in most cases will not do well cooped up in an apartment.

                   

Heat or high humidity can easily cause heat stress  in the Berner, and should not be exercised in the heat of the day.  Ensure that he can rest in the cool of the home, or that he has plenty of shade and water if he must be outdoors.  Many Berners will dig a hole to try to reach cool earth to lie in when there is hot weather.  A wading pool is generally appreciated by the Berner, and many will lie in waist deep water to cool off in the heat of the day.

 

The Bernese mountain dog has a thick coat and requires a reasonably high level of attention to his coat.  Grooming is required at least twice weekly, and daily when he is shedding.  His ears should also be checked and cleaned weekly.

Best suited for

The Berner would suit active singles, couples and families who have plenty of time to be outdoors playing, hiking or doing other activities with their Berner. 

Breed Details

American Staffordshire Terrier

General breed description

The American Staffordshire terrier, also known as the Am Staff here in Australia and in many other parts of the world, is a stocky, muscular, powerful looking dog possessing great courage and strength for his size.  The head is broad and powerful, with a short to medium length muzzle and very strong jaw.  The ears are set high on the head and are either pricked, or half dropped.  The tail is narrow and naturally of medium length.  The coat is short, dense and smooth.  The Am Staff comes in a variety of colours, including red, fawn, black, blue or brindle, and any may be combined with white.

The Am Staff is generally of larger bone structure, head size and weight than the closely related American Pit Bull terrier, with males standing 45 – 48 cm tall and females standing 43 – 46 cm tall at the shoulder.  The weight is generally 25 – 30 kg, and should be in proportion to the height.

History

The ancestors of the Am Staff were the “bull and terrier” breeds of 19th century England. The old English bulldogs (now extinct) were used to fight bulls and bears for sport before the 19th century. These dogs were not bred to be pets, but for “gameness”, when pitted against a bear or bull for strength and skill, as well as courage. Bull baiting was also thought to tenderise the meat of bulls brought to market.   In 1835 this practice was outlawed, as the UK began to recognise and introduce animal welfare laws. Clandestine dog fighting (pit fighting) then took place for decades and the pluckiness or “gameness” of the fighting dog was still highly prized. A dog that stopped fighting in the pit was reviled. Various terrier breeds were introduced to give the old bull baiting dogs more agility and stamina. These were known as “bull and terrier” dogs, and were the early “proto-Staffords”.   Going on to become the Staffordshire bull terrier in England, around 1870 some of these bull and terrier dogs were brought to the USA, and bred not only for pit fighting, but to work on the ranches of farmers. Dogs used to work on farms tended to be slightly larger and heavier, and their temperament also was modified to suit their lifestyle as a human companion and working partner. Today they are recognised as a separate breed to the American Pit Bull terrier by most Kennel Clubs, although an AKC registered Am Staff can be co-registered with the UKC as an American Pit Bull terrier, as the two breeds are considered to be the same breed by the UKC.

Breed temperament and behaviour

The Am Staff is a friendly and loyal dog with his family, is loyal and affectionate with adults and children. He is a very trustworthy dog, and enjoys having a job to do. He is also very protective of his family, and will become aggressive if he feels they are threatened. If provoked, the Am Staff is a relentless fighter, well able to finish an enemy.  

The Am Staff can be aggressive towards other dogs, and requires early and ongoing socialisation. He can also be stubborn if he does not want to do something, and requires a firm and consistent owner who can offer him the correct leadership and training he needs.

Requirements and needs

The Am Staff needs daily exercise; otherwise he may become unruly and destructive. He needs to be part of the family, and - as a working dog - does best if he feels he has a job to do. A well secured yard is essential, as many people are intimidated by the appearance of the Am Staff, and a roaming dog can cause problems for you and for him. Good training and socialisation are essential from a young age. The Am Staff’s short coat is easy to groom, and a weekly brush and rub down with a damp towel will keep his coat in top condition.

Best suited for

The Am Staff is not a dog for the elderly or infirm. He is a very active dog indoors, but can do okay without a yard if exercised sufficiently. An experienced and active owner would suit this breed best. You must be prepared for lots of training and active time with your Am Staff.

Breed Details

American Eskimo Dog

General breed description

The UKC recognises two sizes of American Eskimo dog; the miniature and the standard, whereas the AKC recognises three sizes; the toy, the miniature and the standard.  The toy stands 23-30 cm tall at the withers; the miniature is 33-38cm tall and the standard is 39-48 cm tall under AKC standards.

 

The Eskie is generally white, but may be white with biscuit cream.  He has brown eyes and a black nose and black lips.  The Eskie has the typical appearance of a spitz breed, with a thick double coat, a characteristic head and face, and a curled tail with long hair carried high and over the back.  The ears are small, triangular and erect, set on a wedge shaped head with a tapering muzzle that is about the same length as the skull.  The body is only slightly longer than it is tall, and there is a thick ruff of hair around the neck and chest, especially in males.  Hair is somewhat shorter on the face and head, and the front of the legs, but is longer on the body and the upper and backs of the legs, while the tail has a profuse covering of hair.  The undercoat is dense and soft, while the longer outer coat is straight and stands out from the body.

 

History

The American Eskimo dog (or “Eskie” as he is affectionately known) has developed in the USA from European spitz breeds that were common in communities of German immigrants to the US in the mid- to late- nineteenth century.  Breeds that contributed to the development of the Eskie are thought to include the white German spitz, as well as the white Pomeranian, the white keeshond and the white Volpino Italiano (or Italian spitz).  White was very much the favoured colour of these dogs in the US, and they became known as the American spitz.

 

The first American Eskimo dogs to be registered with the American United Kennel Club (UKC) in 1913 were from a kennel of supposed German spitz dogs with the kennel name “American Eskimo”, owned by Mr and Mrs F. M. Hall.  The dogs were registered under the name American Eskimo dog, and for many years afterwards individual dogs were registered based on their appearance.  It is believed that the name was favoured over American spitz due to widespread anti-German feeling around the time of World War One.  While these dogs are not related to the Eskimo culture at all, the name also pays homage to the ancestry of Nordic breeds that the American Eskimo dog, as a spitz breed, descends from.

 

The American Eskie became famous in the US in the 1930s as a circus performer.  Eskie puppies were often sold to adoring fans at the end of circus performances, and an American Eskimo dog is reported to have been the first to walk the high wire.  The American Eskimo dog standard was first set in 1958 by the UKC and the National American Eskimo Dog Association was formed in 1969, at which time the studbook was closed.  The American Kennel Club (AKC) recognised the breed in 1995; however the only other country to recognise the Eskie is Canada.  American Eskie owners wanting to compete in other countries register their dogs as the (very similar) German spitz in order to do so.  Breeding between the American Eskimo dog and German spitz does occur in order to maintain genetic diversity, although the two are separate breeds.

Breed temperament and behaviour

The American Eskimo dog is very intelligent and is a lively, active dog.  He is loyal and eager to please, making him easy to train.  The Eskie bonds strongly with his family, and is a playful and happy member of the family who loves to play with children and has plenty of energy.  Due to his origins as a working dog, he can have a bit of a stubborn streak, and he also makes a good watchdog, and can be quite vocal.  The Eskie can take up to two years to outgrow his puppy behaviour and reach full maturity.

 

He can be wary of strangers initially, and requires early and ongoing socialisation to avoid behaviour problems with strange people and animals.  He can get along with other dogs and cats if brought up with them, but does not tend to do well with other pets (such as birds, rabbits, reptiles etc).  Eskies, like other dogs, do not respond well to harsh discipline, and may react to such by becoming withdrawn and distrustful.  Due to his naturally high intelligence the Eskie requires lots of stimulation, and needs to live inside with his family.  He does not do well if left alone for long periods, and quickly becomes bored, which may lead to destructive behaviour.

Requirements and needs

The American Eskimo dog is quite an active dog when indoors, and will do best with at least a small, secure yard.  Regardless he will require daily exercise in the form of a walk and a play where he can run and interact mentally with his owner.  He does very well at a number of dog sports such as agility and flyball, and needs to be kept occupied mentally.

 

The Eskie requires a reasonable amount of grooming, with a good brush and comb at least twice a week.  Daily grooming will be required when he is shedding, which occurs twice a year.  He does not require much bathing, and this can irritate his skin, which is naturally quite dry.  He should only be bathed when required if he has gotten particularly dirty.  Most mud and dirt can be brushed out once dry.

 

Although he is suited to cold climates, he can live in warm weather as well.  It is never recommended to shave an Eskie, as his coat helps protect him from all types of weather. 

Best suited for

With a range of sizes available, there is an Eskie to suit just about everyone who have the time to spend with him.  He will suit singles, couples and families as long as he is not left alone for long periods and has his needs met in regards to exercise, socialisation and training.

Sammy's Account

Health

Confirmed Medical Conditions Current Medications

     Elbow Dysplasia

  Rabies  
  Parvo/Distemper/Hepatitis  
  trifexus  

Type of Food Brand of Food

   Dry

   Canine Adult

Supplements Dental Care

   N/A

   N/A

Treats Adverse food reactions

   Milk bone

   Wheat

Pet Owner Concerns
Skin:
Itchy
Ears:
Smelly ear(s)
Digestion:
Scooting or dragging hind end
Anxiety :
Car

Teeth & Mouth:
Bad breath
Teeth & Mouth:
Bad breath

Health Risks

The list below was generated by our proprietary algorithm. It takes into account Sammy's breed makeup, age, weight, sex and other lifestyle factors.

Please note. It does not mean Sammy will ever actually contract any of these diseases. It only represents an increased RISK when comparing Sammy's genetic information to published scientific information available.

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Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

1

Histiocytic Sarcoma Complex

Approximately one in every 1000 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

None available at this time.

Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) complex comprises several diseases, including histiocytic sarcoma and malignant histiocytosis (MH). The names of these diseases are taken from the Histiocyte Society, an expert group in the field of histiocytic diseases.

Localised histiocytic sarcoma may be seen on the lower limbs, or around the joints. It is a cancer of histiocytic cells, which are specialised immune cells that are involved in collecting and presenting antigen to white blood cells. If a localised HS is treated early enough, it may have a good prognosis. Surgical removal of the mass is required, and if a joint is involved limb amputation may be required. It is important that all cancerous cells are removed to avoid recurrence and spread to other organs.

Disseminated histiocytic sarcoma is when an initial HS has undergone extensive spread throughout the body. It generally arises from a tumour in a hidden site, such as the lung or spleen. This type of HS is very difficult to treat, as there is cancerous disease in multiple tissues. Malignant histiocytosis is similar to disseminated HS in that MH is an aggressive disease where the cancer arises in multiple tissues at once. MH is thought to be rare, although it is difficult to differentiate from disseminated HS clinically.

The HS complex of diseases is most commonly recognised in the Bernese mountain dog, although it is seen in several other breeds, including the golden retriever, flat-coated retriever and Rottweiler.

In the Berner there is a familial pattern of inheritance, although the exact genetic mechanism of inheritance has yet to be determined. Common signs of HS include lethargy, weight loss and loss of appetite. If the lymph nodes of the lungs are involved there may be a cough or difficult respiration.

Sometimes tumours in the spine occur, leading to hind limb paralysis, or cancer in the brain may lead to seizures.

The treatment for disseminated HS and MH is chemotherapy, however the response to such treatment to date has generally been brief. The prognosis is poor for both forms of disease, and both will ultimately lead to death or euthanasia.

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Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

2

Elbow Dysplasia

Approximately one in every 11.76 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

1. Recognized radiographic screening technique under general anaesthesia at 12 - 24 months of age (usually done at same time as hip dysplasia screening) and assessed by accredited radiologist.

Elbow dysplasia refers to a group of four developmental disorders affecting the elbow and leading to forelimb lameness in large breed dogs. It is inherited, and has a high heritability, with certain breeds showing increased prevalence of the disease.

One or more of the following abnormalities may be seen in either one or both elbows of affected animals:

Ununited anconeal process (UAP)

Fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP)

Osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (osteochondritis dissecans, or OCD, occurs once a cartilage flap forms in the joint)

Incongruity due to asynchronous proximal growth of the radius and ulna

Elbow dysplasia is one of the most common causes of forelimb lameness in large breed dogs. Onset of joint pain is usually between 4 – 10 months, with lameness made worse following exercise. Some dogs may not show pain and lameness until later in life, when degenerative joint changes and arthritis becomes apparent.

Treatment depends on the type of abnormality that is present, which is determined by x-ray. FCP is the most common form of elbow dysplasia in dogs, and for this form of the disease medical management is usually recommended, as surgical treatment has not been shown to improve the outcome for the patient. Other forms of elbow dysplasia regularly seen, OCD of the elbow and UAP, are recommended to be treated surgically to obtain the best outcome, and the prognosis is good if surgery is performed as early as possible, before any bony joint change (e.g. arthritis) occurs.

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Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

3

Multi-Drug Sensitivity (MDR1)

Approximately one in every 3.19 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

CLEAR

Screening Suggestions (when available)

DNA test available to screen for MDR1 mutation (available for puppies).

In certain breeds a mutation on the MDR1 gene (which stands for Multi Drug Resistance 1) makes affected animals sensitive to certain drugs. The first drug that this defect was found to be present for was Ivermectin, used to treat mange and prevent heartworm. Affected dogs suffer seizures when given this drug. It has since been found that the mutation on the MDR1 gene means that the brain is not able to efficiently pump some drugs out of its protected environment the way normal brain vessels do – hence these drugs can enter and build up in the brain tissue, and cause toxic effects such as seizures.

A range of drugs are usually pumped out of the brain by the protein pump that the MDR1 gene is responsible for, and so dogs carrying the defective (“mutant”) gene are sensitive to a whole range of drugs. Dogs carrying two copies of the mutant gene are more sensitive to these drugs than those with one copy of the gene. For more details on the drugs involved in this disease, information can be found at  http://vcpl.vetmed.wsu.edu/problem-drugs

Your vet should be aware if your dog is carrying an affected MDR1 gene, or 2 copies of the gene, as the amount of these drugs given needs to be reduced to avoid toxic effects, or alternative drugs used if available. This genetic defect is known to occur quite commonly in a number of breeds, especially Collies, and a DNA test is available to determine if your dog is carrying abnormal MDR1 gene/s or not.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

4

Allergy and Atopy

Approximately one in every 14.71 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

Note: there is no routine screening available prior to development of clinical signs.

Allergic and immune mediated diseases are becoming much more prevalent in dogs in the last 1-2 decades.  Allergic diseases are thought likely have a genetic predisposition, but environmental triggers play a major role in their development. 

Allergic dermatitis is a very common skin problem in dogs, and can be due to things such as flea allergy, food allergy and allergy to plants or other substances in the environment (e.g. moulds, dust mites, pollens).  The latter type of allergic dermatitis is called atopy.  Differentiating food allergy from atopy can be a major diagnostic challenge, involving food trials that may take months to complete.  It is also possible for both conditions to be present in the one animal at the same time.

Atopy is a very common condition which has also been referred to as allergic inhalant dermatitis.  Affected dogs develop an allergic reaction to common environmental substances, such as pollens, moulds and house dust, which are inhaled in the normal course of the dog’s life.  Atopy is strongly heritable, and affected dogs are thought to inherit a genetic predisposition to develop allergic antibodies.  Diagnosis is by skin testing with allergens (allergy skin test), which is much more accurate than blood tests, and is performed by veterinary dermatologists.

Affected dogs have generalised itchiness, and will scratch, lick or chew at their feet and other areas of their skin.  They can sometimes damage their skin quite severely, and secondary bacterial infection once the skin is damaged is quite common.  Sneezing and other respiratory signs are not common, despite the allergen being inhaled - only around 15% of affected dogs show respiratory signs (except in the Dalmatian, which is much more likely to sneeze).

Treatment can involve various anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressing drugs, as well as desensitisation therapy, fatty acid supplements and various lotions and shampoos.  Secondary infections are also treated as they arise.  Immunotherapy (allergen specific desensitisation) is the best option available to control the condition in the long term, without the side effects of steroids and other immune-suppressing drugs.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

5

Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture

Approximately one in every 17.15 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

AFFECTED

Screening Suggestions (when available)

There is no screening test available for this condition prior to actual ligament rupture.

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is a common injury in dogs, with a prevalence of 2.55% reported across the dog population in general. Any breed and any dog can be affected by this condition. Some breeds are predisposed to this condition however, with the prevalence in the Rottweiler reported to be 8.3%. It is believed that this condition occurs more in these breeds not just due to trauma, but due to degeneration of the ligament itself leading to a weakness of the ligament. Factors that contribute to ligament degeneration include: obesity, osteoarthritis and other inflammatory joint conditions, as well as genetics.

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture causes acute lameness in the affected hind limb. The torn ligament and resulting instability of the stifle (knee) joint leads to inflammation, and eventually joint capsule thickening in an attempt to stabilise the joint. Arthritic changes will also develop over time. The most common age that this injury occurs in dogs is 7 – 10 years, with large breeds tending to be affected at a younger age than smaller breeds.

Diagnosis is indicated by a positive drawer sign on examination on the joint, and definitively by x-rays with a specific “picture” of the knee required (stressed view with tibial compression). Often sedation or anaesthesia is required for a full examination due to the pain in the joint. Surgical repair is usually required to stabilise the joint and reduce the risk of arthritis later in life. It is not uncommon for the opposite cruciate to also rupture at some time in the future.

In some dogs, especially small dogs, medical management can be successful. However, because the knee joint is unstable, it is always prone to injury more easily in the future, and once arthritis forms (which is the body’s attempt to stabilise the area) surgery will no longer take away your dog’s pain. The decision to go ahead with surgical repair of the joint is best made early for best results to be obtained. You should also spend some time researching the experience level and results previously obtained by your surgeon, and do not be afraid to seek a second opinion! Surgery is generally always recommended in large dogs, and several techniques are available.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

6

Hypothyroidism

Approximately one in every 18.45 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

CLEAR

Screening Suggestions (when available)

1. Consider TgAA at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 6 years (generally used in pure breed breeding certification programs). 1. Thyroid panel - ie baseline Total T4 & TSH. (Run tests in a “well” dog) - recommend annually from two years of age.

Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine (hormonal) disease in dogs, and most commonly occurs due to an immune-mediated process where the immune system destroys the thyroid gland (called lymphocytic thyroiditis). It is thought that the end stage of this immune-mediated destruction is an atrophied, fatty thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism is a complex and progressive disease that is often not diagnosed until signs are well progressed, as early signs are non-specific and can vary widely.  They may consist (in the younger adult dog) of vague signs such as reduced energy levels, or increased susceptibility to infections.  Most veterinarians and owners do not test for this disease every time a relatively young dog gets an infection!  Also, when an animal is unwell, their thyroid hormone level is likely to be low regardless of how healthy their thyroid gland is, (called \"sick euthyroid syndrome\") which further complicates attempts to get an early diagnosis.

Late stage (advanced) signs of disease such as bilateral symmetrical alopecia (hair loss on both sides of the body), weight gain, poor cold tolerance and failure of clipped hair to regrow are more recognisable to the owner and veterinarian as signs of serious illness, although these signs are generally not seen until middle age or later.  These signs will generally lead a veterinarian to test for hypothyroidism.

In almost all breeds there is currently no DNA test for hypothyroidism, however there are recent improvements in screening tests, and in countries such as the UK and USA there are breeding certification programs for hypothyroidism (e.g.; Orthopedic Foundation for Animals Hypothyroidism Certification Program - see http://www.offa.org)

The OFA program bases certification on the thyroid hormone level test (fT4 and TSH), as well as a test for antibodies against thyroglobulin (TgAA), which is a good indicator for lymphocytic thyroiditis.  Testing as young as 1 year of age can pick up this disease, and certification for breeding can be provided, although re-testing at 2, 3, 4 and 6 years is recommended for dogs testing normal at 12  months.  It is strongly recommended that affected dogs not be used for breeding. 

Treatment of hypothyroidism is with daily hormone replacement using a synthetic thyroid hormone. This aims to maintain approximately normal levels of thyroid hormone within the animal.  Lifelong treatment is required, and if maintained, dogs will generally lead a normal, healthy life.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

7

Luxating patella

Approximately one in every 18.38 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

1. Easily detected on examination and manipulation by experienced veterinarian - should check for this in puppies if is a predisposed breed.

Luxating patella refers to a kneecap that can dislocate in and out of the groove that it normally sits in. Medial luxation (dislocation inwards, or towards the other leg) is considered heritable, and is usually seen in relatively young dogs and in small and toy breeds. Lateral luxation (dislocation outwards, away from the other leg) is seen later in life, around the age of 5 – 8 years in toy breeds, and heritability has not been proven as yet. In contrast, lateral luxation in large breeds is seen at around 5 – 6 months of age.

Luxating patella is a congenital problem (it is due to the conformation of the knee, and is present from birth), but the degree to which the patella can move out of the patellar groove of the knee tends to increase over time. The degree of luxation (dislocation) can be graded on a scale of 1 – 4, based on clinical examination by the veterinarian and on the amount of change to the knee joint (stifle) on x-ray.

Clinical signs of luxating patella may be hard to detect initially. Dogs may “skip” a step when running, or “bunny hop” in the back legs. Untreated, luxating patella will wear away at the bone of the leg on each side of the patellar groove, and arthritis will develop. This can lead to severe pain and lameness as a dog gets older.

In young dogs, surgery is generally recommended to correct the problem before bony changes and arthritis sets in. However surgery is less likely to be helpful once arthritis is present, and in older dogs’ treatment is generally aimed at managing pain.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

8

Epilepsy (Idiopathic, Primary or Inherited Seizures)

Approximately one in every 28.33 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

No screening currently available - thorough work up of all cases of seizure recommended.

Epilepsy is a disease characterised by seizures, and is diagnosed by ruling out all possible reasons or causes for seizures – causes such as disease or trauma to the brain, metabolic disease (such as low levels of glucose or calcium in the blood), or exposure to toxins. When no cause for seizures is present, this is called primary or idiopathic seizures - or epilepsy - and is generally accepted to have a genetic basis. The precise method of inheritance is not known, but is suspected to be recessive and affected by several genes.

Epilepsy generally presents between 1.5 and 3 years of age, although it may be seen between 6 months and 5 years. Dogs whose seizures begin at less than 2 years of age are more likely to have severe disease that is more difficult to control.

Seizures are almost always generalised, or “grand mal” type, and will begin initially as a single seizure followed by recovery. Also called “tonic-clonic” seizures, there is a period where the dog goes stiff and falls (if standing), followed by a variable period of repeated muscle contractions (jaw chomping, legs jerking). Salivation occurs and loss of bladder and/or bowel control may also occur. The seizure will last up to a minute or two, followed by a variable recovery period.

Epilepsy cannot be cured, and a dog will continue to suffer seizures for the rest of its life. Seizures tend to occur more and more frequently if the condition is left untreated, and can be fatal in severe cases. Treatment is with anti-seizure medication (anticonvulsants), and aims to reduce the occurrence and severity of seizures.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

9

Mast Cell Tumour

No prevalence data is currently available

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

Thorough examination and palpation of skin surface (cutaneous form) annually at each veterinary check-up.

Mast cells are a type of immune cell involved in allergy and inflammation that is found in many tissues in the body.  Mast cell tumours of the skin (also called mastocytoma) are the most common skin cancer of dogs, and are thought to account for between 15 - 20% of canine skin tumours.  Mast cell tumours may also be found throughout the body, commonly in organs such as the intestine, spleen or liver.  Certain breeds with a predisposition for mast cell tumours include brachycephalic breeds (e.g. boxers, Boston terriers, bulldogs, pugs), retriever breeds and Rhodesian ridgebacks.

Mast cell tumours are commonly malignant, and are graded as to their severity by a specialist pathologist.  This helps to determine the treatment protocol and likely prognosis.  The outlook for a grade I mast cell tumour of the skin is relatively good, while a grade III-IV mast cell tumour carries a poor outlook, as the likelihood of prior spread (metastasis) is high.  Mast cell tumours are locally invasive, and generally require surgical removal with as wide a margin as possible to ensure no tumour cells are left behind. 

Mast cell tumours of the skin can be variable in appearance, and may appear quite suddenly and grow quickly, or may not change much at all for months, followed by sudden rapid growth.  Multiple lumps may appear at the same time.  Lumps may be raised and discrete, soft or solid feeling, or with more diffuse borders.  Release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine from tumours may lead to local and systemic signs, with the most common reported to be gastric ulceration (in around 25% of dogs). 

Diagnosis of mast cell tumour is generally by aspiration or biopsy of a tumour and examination by a veterinary pathologist.  As well as surgery, treatment may also include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and supportive medical therapy with H1 and H2 histamine blockers, antacids (e.g. proton pump inhibitors), sucralfate and occasionally misoprostol.  The prognosis is largely dependent on the staging of the tumour/s.

#

Disease

Impact Rank

Estimated prevalence

Result

10

Diabetes Mellitus.

Approximately one in every 76.92 pets like Sammy will develop this condition

NONE

Screening Suggestions (when available)

Currently no screening available

Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is thought to develop due to a genetic tendency to develop an immune mediated process that results in the destruction of the cells that naturally produce insulin. These cells are located in the pancreas, and once around 75% have been destroyed, normal control over blood glucose levels can no longer be maintained. Hyperglycaemia (a high level of glucose in the blood) is the result. Diabetes mellitus has been shown to be an inherited disease in the keeshond, but this has not been proven in other breeds so far. It is thought to be a familial trait in many other breeds however. Around half of affected dogs will have measurable antibodies against the pancreatic beta cells (the cells that normally produce insulin) in their blood. 

A lack of insulin production reduces the ability of almost all cells to be able to use glucose as energy. This means these cells must find other sources of energy if they are to survive and function, and so many metabolic changes take place throughout the body. These changes are not normal, and lead to a disease state known as acidosis. Affected animals typically will drink more and urinate more than normal, due to the diuretic effect that the high level of glucose in the blood (and hence in the urine) has. They also will tend to want to eat more than usual, but often will still lose weight – this is because they cannot metabolise energy the way the body normally should, and they use their fat stores as an alternate source of energy for cells. The glucose in the urine can commonly cause infections in the urinary tract. Some dogs may develop a state of collapse and severe illness known as ketosis or ketoacidosis. This is a life-threatening complication of very severe diabetes and usually blood glucose levels are extremely high. Intensive treatment is required for ketoacidosis. 

Diabetes mellitus is generally treated with insulin therapy. There are a number of different types and ways of doing this, but the most common remains daily injections. Sometimes the food is changed to be higher in fibre, but it is controversial as to whether this is beneficial. The blood glucose is monitored by various methods, both at home and through regular testing, to ensure that the dose of insulin given is correct. Too much insulin can cause hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose levels) which can lead to seizures and even death. Most diabetic dogs live full and happy lives once they are on a regular routine of insulin and set meals and once their owners know how to monitor them and recognise any problems that may occur.

DNA Tests Result

Clear : 110 Carrier : 1 At Risk : 4

Haemolymphatic - Associated with the blood and lymph

CLEAR : 11

--

Ophthalmologic - Associated with the eyes and associated structures

CLEAR : 26

POSITIVE : 2

Urinary system / Urologic - Associated with the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra

CARRIER : 1

CLEAR : 6

Nervous system / Neurologic - Associated with the brain, spinal cord and nerves

CLEAR : 30

POSITIVE : 2

Metabolic - Associated with the enzymes and metabolic processes of cells

CLEAR : 13

--

Musculoskeletal - Associated with muscles, bones and associated structures

CLEAR : 8

--

Dermatologic - Associated with the skin

CLEAR : 5

--

Immunologic - Associated with the organs and cells of the immune system

CLEAR : 2

--

Cardiovascular - Associated with the heart and blood vessels

CLEAR : 1

--

Reproductive - Associated with the reproductive tract

CLEAR : 1

--

Respiratory - Associated with the lungs and respiratory system

CLEAR : 1

--

Endocrine - Associated with hormone-producing organs

CLEAR : 3

--

Digestive system / Gastrointestinal - Associated with the organs and structures of the digestive system

CLEAR : 2

--

Trait (Associated with Phenotype)

CLEAR : 1

--

Sammy's Account

Nutrition

Based on “Sammy” weight we would recommend feeding a large breed adult food formulation. You may adjust this further to suit the lifestyle, age and level of activity “Sammy” will be engaged in (see below).

Activity Level
High
Breeding Female
NO
YES
Daily Energy Requirements
5430-6788 kcal

Type of Food
Dry
Brand of Food
Canine Adult
Product Name
Hills Science Diet Canine Adult

Daily Amount Fed
3 cups
Supplements
Dental Care
None

Treats
Milk bone
Adverse food reactions
Wheat

General Nutritional Advice for Puppies and Dogs.
Good nutrition is essential for your dog to have a healthy, happy life, and what your dog eats will affect every aspect of his life. It is critical that he has the correct amounts of energy, protein, fatty acids, carbohydrates and trace minerals and nutrients for growth as well as maintenance of a healthy body and brain. Nutrition is vital to a dog?s ability to think clearly, as thinking requires mental energy and the correct amino acid balance for the maintenance of normal brain chemistry. Poor nutrition, e.g. poor quality protein in the diet, or a diet that is not balanced can lead to behaviour problems, as the dog cannot focus properly and will "act out" because he does not understand what you are trying to teach him. It can lead to increased stress levels and reduced immune system function, making the dog more vulnerable to toxins and the various infectious agents that he is exposed to in everyday life. Overall this leads to a reduced lifespan and a reduction in his quality of life, due to an increase in illness and general lack of wellbeing. So, how do you know if your dog?s diet is good or bad? There are several options when feeding your dog - generally the easiest in terms of ensuring a good quality and well balanced diet is to buy a high quality commercial dog food. We shall discuss what makes a dog food "good quality" shortly. More and more people, including some vets, are now advocating raw food diets, or "natural" diets for dogs.

There are some drawbacks to this approach. Firstly, raw meats can transmit parasites (such as toxoplasmosis) and bacteria that can make your dog very ill, such as Salmonella, E.coli and Enterobacter. Raw meat can spoil very quickly, especially in warmer weather, and can generally not be stored for later feeding. Commercial raw meats ("pet meat" or "pet mince") generally have preservatives added, some of which can be dangerous. Be aware that in many countries the pet meat industry is less regulated than the human meat industry, and a lot of preservatives may be added to meat, some of which can make the meat look red when in fact it is starting to spoil. Most veterinary nutritionists recommend that all meat fed to animals should be well cooked, the same as if it were being fed to people. Secondly, it can be very difficult when home preparing meals to ensure that the meal is well balanced with all the nutrients your dog requires, in a form that will be easily digestible and absorbed by your dog?s digestive system and that will be palatable to your dog. Vitamins and minerals must be present not only in the correct amounts, but in the correct ratio in respect to one another, otherwise deficiencies can occur. Remember that commercial pet foods are quality tested to ensure that they are fully balanced to meet your dog?s requirements, and many are available that are of excellent quality. With a little effort you can generally find a dog food of very high quality if you know what to look for, and know what to avoid. Always look for a diet that is accredited by the regulator in your country.

So how do you go about finding a fully balanced, good quality commercial dog food? The first thing to remember is that ingredients on the label must be listed in order of how much the diet contains. This means the first listed ingredient in a food in theory is the ingredient that the food has the most of, the second ingredient is the one that the food has the second most of, and so on. Note that if the first ingredient is a meat - e.g. chicken - a lot of this meat is actually water. Once the food is cooked and processed, a lot of this water is removed, leaving maybe 20% of the original weight of the ingredient. So if the second ingredient is a grain - e.g. corn - there may actually be more corn than chicken in the food! If however, the first ingredient is chicken meal, this means that the water has already been removed from the chicken meat (before adding it to the formula and weighing it for the ingredient list), and so the product is more likely to have a high content of animal protein. Ideally there should be more animal-based protein in a food than grain protein. Animal proteins are more digestible than protein from grain sources - this means the dog can utilise more of the food, and less is wasted and passes through the gut unused.

Animal-based protein, including specified meats, dairy products and egg, is referred to as high quality protein, and is important for a healthy immune system, good mental functioning and a good coat quality. Avoid a diet that contains unspecified meat - ingredients listed as ""poultry" or "animal protein". Often this will be the waste products of meat production that is considered unfit for human consumption. It will often contain a lot less actual meat protein. Look for specified meat, such as "chicken", "chicken meal", "lamb", "pork" etc. Avoid anything termed a "by-product" e.g. "meat by-product" "poultry by-product" etc. This may mean feet, beaks, feathers, fur etc and often contains very little meat! Also note that animal fat or animal tallow is not a source of protein, and is often added to a diet high in grain protein in order in increase palatability (i.e. make it taste better). If the first few ingredients are all grains and include an animal fat e.g. "chicken tallow" this indicates a lower quality diet that is not as preferable as one with a high content of animal proteins.

So, to sum up - an ideal commercial dog food should contain: *More animal-based protein than grain-protein.*A specified meat or meat meal as the first ingredient.*3 of the first 5 ingredients ideally should be specified animal-based (including dairy products or eggs) ingredients.*A fully balanced formulation with added antioxidants.*An explanation of the ingredients in it and why they are added. Avoid diets with soy protein, as these can be associated with allergies in dogs, and may lead to skin problems, chronic diarrhoea and other chronic problems. Similarly, corn has reportedly been linked to an increase in allergies in some dogs, with a possible association with skin and joint problems. Note that terms such as "all natural" and "premium" on a label do not have any legal standing and as such are not reliable indicators of content of the food. However, if a formulation carries accreditation (e.g. Accredited to AS 5812) this means that the product has been independently tested and meets the requirements for accreditation (e.g. for Australian Standard 5812 - a set standard for the manufacture and marketing of pet food). Looking for this standard is a good start in ensuring safety and quality in the manufacturing process.

Sammy's Account

Life Plan

Sammy's Life Plan

Puppy

6-8 weeks


8-14 weeks


14-16 weeks

Junior

16 weeks - 1 year

Adult

1 year - 2 years

 What the veterinarian does
Full examination 1st booster vaccination Assess heartworm/flea/ parasite prevention program.

Weigh, assess size and growth rate. Assess diet and nutrition. Discuss ongoing training & exercise requirements.
 Disease screening

If applicable, consider pre- breeding health and DNA screening



consider elbow x-rays
check for lumps (MCT) annually
 Routine Care Alerts
  • Trifexus: Medication for parasite control is due on 1st of August 2018 !
  • Tapeworms: Your pet is due on 14th of August 2018 for Tapeworm parasite control ! Please give the medication as directed. Note you may have received this notification if the parasite control product you are using does not cover Tapeworms, please contact your veterinarian if you have any concerns.
  • Fleas: Your pet's flea control is overdue. Please apply the medication as directed. In winter times where there are no fleas you may be able to stop this medication, please contact your veterinarian to discuss if you have any concerns.
Mature

2 - 5 years

 What the veterinarian does
Annual full examination. Consider vaccination - core vaccination generally recommended every 3 years, but discuss with vet for your dog’s individual needs. Non-core vaccine (eg kennel cough) are still required annually if to be given.

Weigh. Assess body condition and adult nutrition program. Discuss ongoing exercise and training requirements.
 Disease screening

Yearly eye exam. Detailed dental examination.  



Thyroid Panel Annually
check for lumps (MCT) annually
 Routine Care Alerts
  • Rabies: Your pet is due on 17th of November 2019 for vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Some "Core" routine vaccines for adults may be give only once every 3 years, but may need titre testing to confirm immunity Please consult with your veterinarian.
  • Parvo/distemper/hepatitis: Your pet is due on 1st of February 2019 for vaccination of the main core vaccines ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Core vaccines for adults are usually due every 3 years, but this may change depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.
  • Heartworms: Your pet's heartworm prevention is due on 10th of May 2019. Don't forget to give it today, or order some more !
  • Canine cough: Your pet is due on 14th of May 2019 for Kennel (Canine) Cough vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. If you dog does not associate with other dogs on a regular basis or planning a stay at a boarding facility, they may not need to have this vaccine. Please discuss this with your veterinarian if you have any concerns.
Senior

5 - 8 years

Geriatric

8 years and older

Health Alerts

Routine Care Reminder Owner-initiated Reminder
Health Alert Disease Screening Suggestion
Health Advise
Health Alert
There may be a problem with Sammy's skin

There are many different potential causes leading to itchiness, bold patches or oily, scaly or discoloured skin. Many can cause problems for Sammy, and more frequent scratching, rubbing, licking, gnawing, or chewing (at body or paws) is a clear indication of a nuisance and/or discomfort.

It's important to know that many dogs with recurring skin problems have an underlying condition (e.g. environmental allergy, underactive thyroid, food hypersensitivity, etc.) that allows their skin problem to persist or come back.

Your veterinarian knows what tests and treatments are needed to sort through all the possibilities, but they will rely heavily on you and your observations of Sammy's response to treatment to ensure that the treatment plan is the one that helps her be as healthy and comfortable as possible.

Regular bathing and grooming can be important for Sammy's skin, coat, comfort, and overall well-being. It can help to keep her free of mats and parasites and it can help you detect lumps and other problems sooner.


Sounds like Sammy may have a problem with their ear/s.

Sammy may have a problem in her ear/s. They may need to be cleaned, flushed or treated by your veterinarian. Ear are really the extension of the skin and often ear problems can be an early indication of skin disease such as allergy or infection. Most dogs' ears are a lot larger and their ear canals are much longer than ours. In some dogs lots of hair at the entrance of the ear canal can also prevent air flow which can lead to moisture being trapped in the ear causing the perfect environment for bacterial and fungi to over grow and cause an infection.

We often only need to clean ears when there is a problem; however at this point they may already be sore, so that the dog learns that handling around the ears is painful and tries to avoid it. Therefore, it should not be surprising that your dog struggles when you try to handle his ears, and may even become aggressive. If you need to clean the ears be careful to only use preparations specifically designed to dog ears. If the problem persists please contact your veterinarian and take Sammy to have her ear/s examined.



There is a lot of information available for pet owners which can sometimes be  confusing or even contradicting. If you are not sure, we encourage you to talk to professionals you trust.

If the advise you get is not working for you get another opinion. Veterinarians are often good sources of health information, they are highly trained professionals and the cost may well save you more trouble in the long run.


Sammy may have a problem with her digestive system !

It sounds like Sammy has one or more concerns that could be related to her digestive system. Digestive problems are very common and can significantly vary in severity.

Pets' digestive system is a large, complex and an extremely important system. It is designed to extract nutrients from food and absorb water. Problems with the digestive system can quickly lead to systemic dehydration, electrolyte imbalances and affect many other organs in the body. Sometimes recurring digestive problems may be due to problems in other body parts.

Your veterinarian may be able to help you determine the appropriate level of concern and if a trip to the clinic is necessary or not.

Health Advise

Bathing, Grooming and Brushing your pet frequently is important for Sammy?s skin, coat, comfort, and overall well-being. Lack of grooming can contribute to skin matts and infections and may hide skin tumors. They will look and smell better and will be safer to be around.



Clipping toe nails as needed to prevent overgrowth is important especially for puppies and elderly pets. Long toe nails may break, grown in to the skin and can cause your dog to stand and walk abnormally and result in pain or accelerate and exacerbate arthritic changes.


Associating with other dogs may increase your Sammy's risk for infection

Your responses indicate lifestyle factors that could put Sammy at an increased risk for catching certain diseases from other dogs.

Dogs can pass to each others parasites (including fleas, ticks, and intestinal worms), as well as bacteria, viruses, and fungi through a variety of different ways including without ever touching each other!

This can happen through a shared environment, like walking Sammy in the same park where other dogs have walked or taking Sammy to the groomer or any location where other dogs live, work (therapy dogs), or play.

If you regularly take your pet to places shared with other pets, its important to make sure their are protected against these common parasites.


Going out hunting and camping with Sammy may increase her risk for infection

Taking Sammy camping and hunting is great activity to be part of.

Taking Sammy camping or huntiong is a great activity for them to be part of.  However this can expose them to parasites and diseases from wildlife and other pets. Some of these conditions may also affect yourself and other people.

Tapeworms are spread by fleas, which are common on pets but also on Kangaroos, Wombats, Dingos and other wildlife (Australia) squirrels, raccoons, and other wildlife (USA). 

Ticks, which are commonly found on deer, rodents, and other wildlife, can spread Q fever (Australia) Lyme disease (USA) and other debilitating conditions when they bite a dog. 

Rodents and other wildlife can spread leptospirosis (a nasty and devastating bacterial infection that can damage the kidneys). Dogs can then spread leptospirosis to people who accidently come in contact with that dog's urine!. And, of course, the often fatal Rabies virus is spread through contact with the saliva of or a bite from an infected bat or fox (Australia) bat, raccoon, fox, (USA) or certain other animals.

Fortunately, there are vaccines that can help protect Sammy including diseases, along with safe and effective parasite preventatives to keep your pet  flea, tick, and intestinal worm free. Be sure to discuss Sammy's vaccination and parasite prevention needs with your veterinarian.


Not Vaccinating Sammy can leave her exposed to fatal disease !

Primary vaccination is essential in order to prevent the once common puppy diseases that caused high levels of fatality from returning. However, recent research indicates that not all vaccines require yearly boosters.

 

There is no evidence that annual booster vaccination is anything but beneficial to the majority of pets. Published research has shown conclusively that omitting to re-inoculate against some of the major diseases can put your pet at risk. To establish whether boosters are necessary for your pet, blood tests to measure the amount of antibodies (antibody titers) are sometimes recommended. Unfortunately, these tests are often more expensive than revaccination and may be stressful to your Cat.

 

If you want to ensure that your pet receives the highest standard of care and protection, he or she should be seen by your veterinarian for a  "wellness examination" on at least an annual basis."

 

Since pets age at a more rapid rate than humans do, it is important to their health to ensure that they receive a complete physical examination on at least an annual basis, and more frequently as they approach their senior years. It’s best to discuss vaccine schedule that is deemed to be most appropriate for your Cat with your veterinarian. 


Feeding Sammy human food leftovers can cause some tummy upsets

Tummy upsets are common when feeding scrap food especially if it is spicy or have lots of salt and herbs.

Dogs' digestive system is designed to handle primarily a meat-based stable diet and adding vegetables and foods high in carbohydrates (rice, corn, potatoes, wheat and grains) can cause diarrhea, soft stool, gas and even more severe tummy upsets.

You can greatly reduce health risks for everyone by feeding Sammy a healthy, balanced and stable diet. Commerical lor balance raw diets are excellent options to consider.


Being nervous in the car is common for some dogs but you may be able to help.

Being nervous in the car is common for many pets and could be due to motion sickness, anxiety and fear.

Try getting Sammy comfortable with the carrier cage or car gradually, providing only positive rewards (e.g. feeding treats) in the carrier or car while not moving and without the trip ending at the vet,  groomer or a place they don't like. If this doesn't do the trick, talk with your veterinarian about ruling out any medical causes, like motion sickness or arthritis, which could make travelling uncomfortable for Sammy.

Sometimes medications or supplements are necessary to help your pet relax or avoid car sickness. 


Bad breath can be a sign of disease

Bad breath may mean that Sammy has dental disease, but it can also be a sign of another problem such as ulcers, a tumour, kidney disease or diabetes. 

It has been reported that some 80% of dogs over 2 years of age have some degree of dental or gum disease. 

Pets, just like people, may need to have their teeth cleaned by using a tooth brush and sometimes even by your vet under anesthesia.

Brushing teeth for pets is easy and some pets actualy like it, especialy if you are using a tasty toothpaste.
Ask your pet shop or your veterinarian about pet-specific tooth brushes, toothpastes, special dental toys, bones, treats and foods that can help keep Sammy’s teeth and gums clean.

Routine Care Reminder
Rabies

Rabies: Your pet is due on 17th of November 2019 for vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Some "Core" routine vaccines for adults may be give only once every 3 years, but may need titre testing to confirm immunity Please consult with your veterinarian.


Parvo/Distemper/Hepatitis

Parvo/distemper/hepatitis: Your pet is due on 1st of February 2019 for vaccination of the main core vaccines ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Core vaccines for adults are usually due every 3 years, but this may change depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.


Trifexus

Trifexus: Medication for parasite control is due on 1st of August 2018 !


Heartworms

Heartworms: Your pet's heartworm prevention is due on 10th of May 2019. Don't forget to give it today, or order some more !


Tapeworms

Tapeworms: Your pet is due on 14th of August 2018 for Tapeworm parasite control ! Please give the medication as directed. Note you may have received this notification if the parasite control product you are using does not cover Tapeworms, please contact your veterinarian if you have any concerns.


Fleas

Fleas: Your pet's flea control is overdue. Please apply the medication as directed. In winter times where there are no fleas you may be able to stop this medication, please contact your veterinarian to discuss if you have any concerns.


Canine Cough

Canine cough: Your pet is due on 14th of May 2019 for Kennel (Canine) Cough vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. If you dog does not associate with other dogs on a regular basis or planning a stay at a boarding facility, they may not need to have this vaccine. Please discuss this with your veterinarian if you have any concerns.

Sammy's Account

Alerts

Routine Care Reminder

 

Due Date

Rabies: Your pet is due on 17th of November 2019 for vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Some "Core" routine vaccines for adults may be give only once every 3 years, but may need titre testing to confirm immunity Please consult with your veterinarian.

Last Given 11/17/2016     Next Date 11/17/2019

 

Due Date

Parvo/distemper/hepatitis: Your pet is due on 1st of February 2019 for vaccination of the main core vaccines ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. Core vaccines for adults are usually due every 3 years, but this may change depending on your veterinarian's recommendations.

Last Given 02/01/2018     Next Date 02/01/2019

 

Due Date

Trifexus: Medication for parasite control is due on 1st of August 2018 !

Last Given 08/01/2018     Next Date 09/01/2018

 

Due Date

Heartworms: Your pet's heartworm prevention is due on 10th of May 2019. Don't forget to give it today, or order some more !

Last Given 04/10/2019     Next Date 05/10/2019

 

Due Date

Tapeworms: Your pet is due on 14th of August 2018 for Tapeworm parasite control ! Please give the medication as directed. Note you may have received this notification if the parasite control product you are using does not cover Tapeworms, please contact your veterinarian if you have any concerns.

Last Given 05/14/2018     Next Date 08/14/2018

 

Due Date

Fleas: Your pet's flea control is overdue. Please apply the medication as directed. In winter times where there are no fleas you may be able to stop this medication, please contact your veterinarian to discuss if you have any concerns.

Last Given 05/14/2018     Next Date 08/14/2018

 

Due Date

Canine cough: Your pet is due on 14th of May 2019 for Kennel (Canine) Cough vaccination ! Please contact your veterinarian to schedule an appointment. If you dog does not associate with other dogs on a regular basis or planning a stay at a boarding facility, they may not need to have this vaccine. Please discuss this with your veterinarian if you have any concerns.

Last Given 05/14/2018     Next Date 05/14/2019