Skull Diversity (All Breeds) Overview
Skull Diversity (All Breeds)
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Category: Trait (Associated with Phenotype)
Variant Detected: c.2031C>A variant in the BMP3 (bone morphogenetic protein 3) gene
Severity: Scale 1 has a very low degree of severity. It is a trait and so is tested based on preference, not usually for health concerns.
Mode of Inheritance: Autosomal Recessive
Test Overview: Skull shape is a dog breed defining characteristic (or trait) that includes a shortened head (referred to as brachycephaly) or an elongated head (referred to as dolichocephaly). The brachycephaly phenotype is associated with shortened pushed in faces, an underbite and widely spaced shallow orbits, examples include the Bulldog, Pug and Boston terrier. Dolichocephaly associated with slender elongated skulls, is found in dog breeds such as the Greyhound, Saluki, and Collie breeds. A c.2031C>A variant in the BMP3 (bone morphogenetic protein 3) gene was found to be almost fixed in extreme brachycephalic breeds such as the Pug Dog, Pekingese, French Bulldog, Griffon Brussels and Boston Terrier. This variant was never seen in dolichocephalic breeds such as the basset hound, great dane, Doberman pincher and Saluki. Functional studies in Zebrafish found that this gene was necessary for craniofacial development.
Research Citation(s): The genetics of canine skull shape variation. Schoenebeck JJ, et al. Genetics. 2013.
Boyko et al. 2010 PLoS Biol. 8: e1000451
Schoenebeck et al. 2012 PLoS Genet 8(8): e1002849
Associated Breed(s): Mixed Breed, Affenpinscher, Afghan Hound , Airedale Terrier, Akita , Alaskan Husky, Alaskan Malamute, American Bulldog , American Bully , American Cocker Spaniel, American Eskimo Dog, American Foxhound, American Staffordshire Terrier, Anatolian Shepherd, Asian Shepherd, Australasian Bosdog, Australian Bulldog, Australian Cattle Dog, Australian Cobberdog, Australian Kelpie, Australian Labradoodle , Australian Shepherd, Australian Silky Terrier, Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog, Australian Terrier, Basenji, Bassett Hound , Beagle, Bearded Collie , Bedlington Terrier, Belgian Groenendael Shepherd, Belgian Lakenois Shepherd, Belgian Malinois Shepherd, Belgian Tervueren Shepherd , Bernese Mountain Dog, Bichon Frise, Black Russian Terrier , Bloodhound, Boerboel, Border Collie, Border Terrier, Borzoi, Boston Terrier, Bouvier Des Flandres, Boxer , Boykin Spaniel, Bracco Italiano, Brazilian Terrier, Briard, British Bulldog, Brittany Spaniel , Bull Arab, Bull Terrier, Bullmastiff, Cairn Terrier, Canaan Dog, Cane Corso Italiano, Cardigan Welsh Corgi, Catahoula, Catahoula Leopard Dog, Cavador, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Cavoodle, Chesapeake Bay Retriever , Chihuahua, Chinese Crested, Chow Chow, Clumber Spaniel , Cockapoo, Cocker Spaniel, Collie Rough, Collie Smooth, Coonhound, Coton De Tulear, Curly Coated Retriever, Dachshund , Dalmatian, Dandie Dinmont Terrier, Dingo, Dobermann, Dogue de Bordeaux, Dutch Shepherd, Dwarf Poodle, English Setter , English Shepherd, English Springer Spaniel, English Toy Spaniel , English Toy Terrier, Field Spaniel, Finnish Lapphund, Flat Coated Retriever, Fox Terrier (Toy), Foxhound , French Bulldog, German Pinscher, German Shepherd Dog, German Shorthaired Pointer, German Spitz , German Wirehaired Pointer, Giant Schnauzer, Golden Retriever, Goldendoodle, Gordon Setter , Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Greyhound , Griffon Bruxellois - Standard, Groodle, Harlequin Pinscher, Havanese, Havanese Terrier Toy, Hungarian Kuvasz, Hungarian Vizsla, Wirehaired Vizsla, Huntaway, Ibizan Hound, Irish Setter, Irish Terrier, Irish Water Spaniel, Irish Wolfhound, Italian Greyhound, Italian Spinone, Jack Russell Terrier, Jagd Terrier, Japanese Chin, Japanese Shiba Inu, Japanese Spitz, Keeshond, Kerry Blue Terrier, Komondor, Koolie , Kromfohrländer, Labradoodle , Labradoodle Retrodoodle , Labrador Retriever, Lagotto Romagnolo, Lakeland Terrier , Lancashire Heeler, Landseer Newfoundland, Lapponian Herder, Large Munsterlander, Leonberger, Lhasa Apso, Lowchen, Maltese, Manchester Terrier , Maremma Sheepdog, Mastiff , Xoloitzcuintle (Mexican Hairless), Miki, Miniature Australian Shepherd, Miniature Bull Terrier, Miniature Dachshund Long Hair, Miniature Dachshund Smooth Hair, Miniature Dachshund Wire Hair, Miniature Fox Terrier, Miniature Pinscher , Miniature Poodle, Miniature Schnauzer, Miniature Yorkshire Terrier, Moodle, Mountain Dog , Munsterlander, Murray River Retriever, Native American Indian Dog, Neapolitan Mastiff, New Zealand Heading Dog, Newfoundland, Norfolk Terrier , Norwegian Elkhound, Norwich Terrier, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever , Old Danish Pointing Dog, Old English Mastiff , Old English Sheepdog , Otterhound, Papillon, Parson Russell Terrier, Pekingese, Pembroke Welsh Corgi, Peruvian Hairless Dog, Phalene, Pharaoh Hound, Plott Hound, Pointer, Polish Lowland Sheepdog, Pomeranian, Portuguese Podengo, Portuguese Water Dog, Prague Ratter, Pug, Puli, Pumi, Rat Terrier, Red and White Setter, Rhodesian Ridgeback , Rottweiler , Russian Toy, Saint Bernard , Saluki, Samoyed, Sarplaninac, Schapendoes, Schipperke, Schnoodle, Scottish Deerhound, Scottish Terrier , Sealydale Terrier, Sealyham Terrier , Shar Pei, Shetland Sheepdog, Shiba Inu, Shih tzu, Siberian Husky, Silky Terrier , Skye Terrier, Sloughi, Smithfield, Smooth Fox Terrier, Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier, Spanish Water Dog, Spoodle, Staffordshire Bull Terrier , Standard Dachshund Long Hair, Standard Dachshund Smooth Hair, Standard Dachshund Wire Hair, Standard Poodle, Standard Schnauzer, Sussex Spaniel, Swedish Lapphund, Swedish Vallhund, Tenterfield Terrier , Tibetan Mastiff, Tibetan Spaniel, Tibetan Terrier , Toy Poodle, Volpino Italiano, Water Spaniel , Weimaraner, Weimaraner Long Hair , Welsh Springer Spaniel, Welsh Terrier , West Highland White Terrier , Whippet , White Swiss Shepherd, Wire Fox Terrier, Yorkshire Terrier,